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Label numbers with scientific notation (e.g. 1e05, 1.5e-02)


  digits = 3,
  scale = 1,
  prefix = "",
  suffix = "",
  decimal.mark = ".",
  trim = TRUE,



Number of digits to show before exponent.


A scaling factor: x will be multiplied by scale before formatting. This is useful if the underlying data is very small or very large.

prefix, suffix

Symbols to display before and after value.


The character to be used to indicate the numeric decimal point.


Logical, if FALSE, values are right-justified to a common width (see base::format()).


Other arguments passed on to base::format().


All label_() functions return a "labelling" function, i.e. a function that takes a vector x and returns a character vector of length(x) giving a label for each input value.

Labelling functions are designed to be used with the labels argument of ggplot2 scales. The examples demonstrate their use with x scales, but they work similarly for all scales, including those that generate legends rather than axes.

See also

Other labels for continuous scales: label_bytes(), label_currency(), label_number_auto(), label_number_si(), label_ordinal(), label_parse(), label_percent(), label_pvalue()

Other labels for log scales: label_bytes(), label_log(), label_number_si()


demo_continuous(c(1, 10))
#> scale_x_continuous()

demo_continuous(c(1, 10), labels = label_scientific())
#> scale_x_continuous(labels = label_scientific())

demo_continuous(c(1, 10), labels = label_scientific(digits = 3))
#> scale_x_continuous(labels = label_scientific(digits = 3))

demo_log10(c(1, 1e9))
#> scale_x_log10()