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Round values to integers and then display as ordinal values (e.g. 1st, 2nd, 3rd). Built-in rules are provided for English, French, and Spanish.


  prefix = "",
  suffix = "",
  big.mark = " ",
  rules = ordinal_english(),


ordinal_french(gender = c("masculin", "feminin"), plural = FALSE)



prefix, suffix

Symbols to display before and after value.


Character used between every 3 digits to separate thousands.


Named list of regular expressions, matched in order. Name gives suffix, and value specifies which numbers to match.


Arguments passed on to number


A number to round to. Use (e.g.) 0.01 to show 2 decimal places of precision. If NULL, the default, uses a heuristic that should ensure breaks have the minimum number of digits needed to show the difference between adjacent values.

Applied to rescaled data.


A scaling factor: x will be multiplied by scale before formatting. This is useful if the underlying data is very small or very large.


The character to be used to indicate the numeric decimal point.


A string that determines the style of positive numbers:

  • "none" (the default): no change, e.g. 1.

  • "plus": preceded by +, e.g. +1.

  • "space": preceded by a Unicode "figure space", i.e., a space equally as wide as a number or +. Compared to "none", adding a figure space can ensure numbers remain properly aligned when they are left- or right-justified.


A string that determines the style of negative numbers:

  • "hyphen" (the default): preceded by a standard hypen -, e.g. -1.

  • "minus", uses a proper Unicode minus symbol. This is a typographical nicety that ensures - aligns with the horizontal bar of the the horizontal bar of +.

  • "parens", wrapped in parentheses, e.g. (1).


Named numeric vector that allows you to rescale large (or small) numbers and add a prefix. Built-in helpers include:

  • cut_short_scale(): [10^3, 10^6) = K, [10^6, 10^9) = M, [10^9, 10^12) = B, [10^12, Inf) = T.

  • cut_long_scale(): [10^3, 10^6) = K, [10^6, 10^12) = M, [10^12, 10^18) = B, [10^18, Inf) = T.

  • cut_si(unit): uses standard SI units.

If you supply a vector c(a = 100, b = 1000), absolute values in the range [0, 100) will not be rescaled, absolute values in the range [100, 1000) will be divided by 100 and given the suffix "a", and absolute values in the range [1000, Inf) will be divided by 1000 and given the suffix "b". If the division creates an irrational value (or one with many digits), the cut value below will be tried to see if it improves the look of the final label.


Logical, if FALSE, values are right-justified to a common width (see base::format()).


Masculin or feminin gender for French ordinal.


Plural or singular for French ordinal.


All label_() functions return a "labelling" function, i.e. a function that takes a vector x and returns a character vector of length(x) giving a label for each input value.

Labelling functions are designed to be used with the labels argument of ggplot2 scales. The examples demonstrate their use with x scales, but they work similarly for all scales, including those that generate legends rather than axes.

See also


demo_continuous(c(1, 5))
#> scale_x_continuous()

demo_continuous(c(1, 5), labels = label_ordinal())
#> scale_x_continuous(labels = label_ordinal())

demo_continuous(c(1, 5), labels = label_ordinal(rules = ordinal_french()))
#> scale_x_continuous(labels = label_ordinal(rules = ordinal_french()))

# The rules are just a set of regular expressions that are applied in turn
#> $er
#> [1] "^1$"
#> $e
#> [1] "."
#> $st
#> [1] "(?<!1)1$"
#> $nd
#> [1] "(?<!1)2$"
#> $rd
#> [1] "(?<!1)3$"
#> $th
#> [1] "(?<=1)[123]$"
#> $th
#> [1] "[0456789]$"
#> $th
#> [1] "."

# Note that ordinal rounds values, so you may need to adjust the breaks too
demo_continuous(c(1, 10))
#> scale_x_continuous()

demo_continuous(c(1, 10), labels = label_ordinal())
#> scale_x_continuous(labels = label_ordinal())

demo_continuous(c(1, 10),
  labels = label_ordinal(),
  breaks = breaks_width(2)
#> scale_x_continuous(labels = label_ordinal(), breaks = breaks_width(2))